Periodically, it is important to remind ourselves of some fundamental aspects of our professional undertakings.
Although originally published in 2001, it remains relevant!
Principles of Journalism
In 1997, an organization then administered by Project for Excellence in Journalism, ("PEJ"), the Committee of Concerned Journalists, ("CCJ"), began a national conversation among citizens and news people to identify and clarify the principles that underlie journalism. After four years of research, including 20 public forums around the country, a reading of journalism history, a national survey of journalists, and more, the group released a Statement of Shared Purpose that identified nine principles. These became the basis for The Elements of Journalism, the book by PEJ Director Tom Rosenstiel and CCJ Chairman and PEJ Senior Counselor Bill Kovach. Here are those principles, as outlined in the original Statement of Shared Purpose.
A STATEMENT OF PURPOSE
After extended examination by journalists themselves of the character of journalism at the end of the twentieth century, we offer this common understanding of what defines our work. The central purpose of journalism is to provide citizens with accurate and reliable information they need to function in a free society.
This encompasses myriad roles helping define community, creating common language and common knowledge, identifying a community’s goals, heroes and villains, and pushing people beyond complacency. This purpose also involves other requirements, such as being entertaining, serving as watchdog and offering voice to the voiceless.
Over time journalists have developed nine core principles to meet the task. They comprise what might be described as the theory of journalism.
1. JOURNALISM’S FIRST OBLIGATION IS TO THE TRUTH Democracy depends on citizens having reliable, accurate facts put in a meaningful context. Journalism does not pursue truth in an absolute or philosophical sense, but it can and must pursue it in a practical sense. This “journalistic truth” is a process that begins with the professional discipline of assembling and verifying facts. Then journalists try to convey a fair and reliable account of their meaning, valid for now, subject to further investigation. Journalists should be as transparent as possible about sources and methods, so audiences can make their own assessment of the information. Even in a world of expanding voices, accuracy is the foundation upon which everything else is built: context, interpretation, comment, criticism, analysis and debate. The truth, over time, emerges from this forum. As citizens encounter an ever-greater flow of data, they have more need not less for identifiable sources dedicated to verifying that information and putting it in context.
2. ITS FIRST LOYALTY IS TO CITIZENS While news organizations answer to many constituencies, including advertisers and shareholders, the journalists in those organizations must maintain allegiance to citizens and the larger public interest above any other if they are to provide the news without fear or favor. This commitment to citizens first is the basis of a news organization’s credibility; the implied covenant that tells the audience the coverage is not slanted for friends or advertisers. Commitment to citizens also means journalism should present a representative picture of all constituent groups in society. Ignoring certain citizens has the effect of disenfranchising them. The theory underlying the modern news industry has been the belief that credibility builds a broad and loyal audience, and that economic success follows in turn. In that regard, the business people in a news organization also must nurture–not exploit their allegiance to the audience ahead of other considerations.
3. ITS ESSENCE IS DISCIPLINE OF VERIFICATION Journalists rely on a professional discipline for verifying information. When the concept of objectivity originally evolved, it did not imply that journalists are free of bias. It called, rather, for a consistent method of testing information – a transparent approach to evidence – precisely so that personal and cultural biases would not undermine the accuracy of their work. The method is objective; not the journalist. Seeking out multiple witnesses, disclosing as much as possible about sources, or asking various sides for comment, all signal such standards. This discipline of verification is what separates journalism from other modes of communication, such as propaganda, fiction or entertainment. However, the need for professional method is not always fully recognized or refined. While journalism has developed various techniques for determining facts, for instance, it has done less to develop a system for testing the reliability of journalistic interpretation.
4. ITS PRACTITIONERS MUST MAINTAIN AN INDEPENDENCE FROM THOSE THEY COVER Independence is an underlying requirement of journalism, a cornerstone of its reliability. Independence of spirit and mind, rather than neutrality, is the principle journalists must keep in focus. While editorialists and commentators are not neutral, the source of their credibility is still their accuracy, intellectual fairness and ability to inform, not their devotion to a certain group or outcome. In our independence, however, we must avoid any tendency to stray into arrogance, elitism, isolation or nihilism.
5. IT MUST SERVE AS AN INDEPENDENT MONITOR OF POWER Journalism has an unusual capacity to serve as watchdog over those whose power and position most affect citizens. The Founders recognized this to be a rampart against despotism when they ensured an independent press; courts have affirmed it; citizens rely on it. As journalists, we have an obligation to protect this watchdog freedom by not demeaning it in frivolous use or exploiting it for commercial gain.
6. IT MUST PROVIDE A FORUM FOR PUBLIC CRITICISM AND COMPROMISE The news media are the common carriers of public discussion, and this responsibility forms a basis for our special privileges. This discussion serves society best when it is informed by facts rather than prejudice and supposition. It also should strive to fairly represent the varied viewpoints and interests in society, and to place them in context rather than highlight only the conflicting fringes of debate. Accuracy and truthfulness require that as framers of the public discussion we not neglect the points of common ground where problem solving occurs.
7. IT MUST STRIVE TO MAKE THE SIGNIFICANT INTERESTING AND RELEVANT Journalism is storytelling with a purpose. It should do more than gather an audience or catalogue the important. For its own survival, it must balance what readers know they want with what they cannot anticipate but need. In short, it must strive to make the significant interesting and relevant. The effectiveness of a piece of journalism is measured both by how much a work engages its audience and enlightens it. This means journalists must continually ask what information has most value to citizens and in what form. While journalism should reach beyond such topics as government and public safety, a journalism overwhelmed by trivia and false significance ultimately engenders a trivial society.
8. IT MUST KEEP THE NEWS COMPREHENSIVE AND PROPORTIONAL Keeping news in proportion and not leaving important things out are also cornerstones of truthfulness. Journalism is a form of cartography: it creates a map for citizens to navigate society. Inflating events for sensation, neglecting others, stereotyping or being disproportionately negative all make a less reliable map. The map also should include news of all our communities, not just those with attractive demographics. This is best achieved by newsrooms with a diversity of backgrounds and perspectives. The map is only an analogy; proportion and comprehensiveness are subjective, yet their elusiveness does not lessen their significance.
9. ITS PRACTITIONERS MUST BE ALLOWED TO EXERCISE THEIR PERSONAL CONSCIENCE Every journalist must have a personal sense of ethics and responsibility–a moral compass. Each of us must be willing, if fairness and accuracy require, to voice differences with our colleagues, whether in the newsroom or the executive suite. News organizations do well to nurture this independence by encouraging individuals to speak their minds. This stimulates the intellectual diversity necessary to understand and accurately cover an increasingly diverse society. It is this diversity of minds and voices, not just numbers, that matters. ... See MoreSee Less
"The President is merely the most important among a large number of public servants. He should be supported or opposed exactly to the degree which is warranted by his good conduct or bad conduct, his efficiency or inefficiency in rendering loyal, able, and disinterested service to the nation as a whole. Therefore it is absolutely necessary that there should be full liberty to tell the truth about his acts, and this means that it is exactly as necessary to blame him when he does wrong as to praise him when he does right. Any other attitude in an American citizen is both base and servile. To announce that there must be no criticism of the President, or that we are to stand by the President, right or wrong, is not only unpatriotic and servile, but is morally treasonable to the American public. Nothing but the truth should be spoken about him or any one else. But it is even more important to tell the truth, pleasant or unpleasant, about him than about any one else."
ATTRIBUTION: THEODORE ROOSEVELT, “Lincoln and Free Speech,” The Great Adventure (vol. 19 of The Works of Theodore Roosevelt, national ed.), chapter 7, p. 289 (1926).
Posted by David P. Michaels Twitter: DPMichaelsNYC FaceBook: DavidPhillipMichaels ... See MoreSee Less
I take this opportunity to wish you all a very successful and fulfilling 2017. I also take this moment to introduce myself to you as the newly appointed CEO of the FPA and look forward to meeting you....
FIDEL CASTRO HAS DIED AT AGE OF 90; HERO AND BASTARD, REVOLUTIONARY AND DICTATOR.
Fidel Castro, the fiery communist politician and Cuban revolutionary who led his country for almost half a century, has died. His health had been deteriorating since 2006, when he suffered from intestinal bleeding. He was 90 years old.
By 1959, Castro had established the first communist state in the Western hemisphere. He had been revered as a savior by many across the country, and yet Human Rights Watch listed Castro’s Cuba as a gross violator of basic and free standards of living. Regardless of how Castro was perceived in his life, he leaves behind a legacy of shaping the history of a small Latin American country in its fight for an identity, and its struggle in standing up against the greatest superpower on Earth.
Castro’s revolutionary spirit had beginnings from when he was a law student at the University of Havana. It was there that his interest in politics began.
In 1952, the young and enthusiastic lawyer ran for election to the Cuban House of Representatives. But the election never took place. Fulgencio Batista, the former president of the country, staged a coup with the backing of the army, and seized power that March. For Castro, this was the moment he realized an uprising was imminent.
But before Castro’s revolution was to take hold, there was another Latin American figure he’d befriend who would help shape rebellion in Cuba and across the region — the Argentine doctor, Ernesto “Che” Guevara.
With Che by his side and a small rebel army backing them, the revolutionaries descended from their stronghold in the Sierra Maestra Mountains, and took on Batista’s U.S.-backed forces. Castro was able to topple the right-wing dictator on Jan. 1, 1959, after Batista had ruled in and out of power for 25 years.
The scene on the streets of Havana just a week later was one of jubilation, as Castro and his brigade rolled into the capital atop tanks and trucks. Thousands of Cubans met them, cheering and waving flags from cars and from balconies.
For Castro, the revolution meant a distinct reordering of society. Through the Agrarian Reform Laws, he redistributed land to the peasants that worked them. He placed an emphasis on healthcare, education, housing and road-building in rural areas.
Then, in 1960, he ordered all U.S.-owned companies in Cuba to be nationalized without compensation. They included oil refineries, factories and casinos. Everywhere around the country, U.S. flags were taken down, and signs for corporations were replaced with the stamp of the Cuban government. Angered by this move, the United States government decided to retaliate, in the form of a trade embargo, which lasted more than five decades.
Castro’s stated goal was simple: to resist against the “imperial” world, and infuse a sense of nationalism across all aspects of Cuban life. But along the way, he compromised civil liberties, forcing many Cubans to flee the country, and head north, to Miami. The country has long been criticized for its human rights abuses of anyone opposing the government since Castro assumed power, including arbitrary imprisonment, unfair trials and extrajudicial execution. In addition to these abuses, civil liberties in the country were almost nonexistent during Castro’s tenure, with severe limitations on freedom of press, religion and general political dissent.
Castro admitted. “We do not have a press system like that of the United States. In the United States there is private property over the mass media. The mass media belongs to private enterprises. They are the ones who say the last word. Here there is no private property over the mass media. There is social property. And it has been, is and will be at the service of the revolution.”
But for all the distinctions from the United States Castro was sure to make, the U.S. blockade crippled Cuba’s economy. In order for the regime to stay afloat, Castro developed an alliance with America’s superpower rival, the Soviet Union – distancing his country even more from the U.S., and leading American President Dwight D. Eisenhower to sever all links with Cuba.
Still, Castro stood firm in his opposition of the States.
“We are a small country,” Castro said in 1985. “But we are also a country with a lot of dignity, and no one can suppose that we would beg the United States for an improvement of relations. We have never done so, and we shall never do it.”
That persistently defiant attitude, along with the deteriorating economy and continued repression of political dissidents, led to a mass exodus of Cubans following the 1959 revolution.
Meanwhile, America’s new president, John F. Kennedy, decided to carry on with his predecessor’s plans to take Castro out. He administered a covert CIA operation commonly known as “The Bay of Pigs” invasion — in which 1,200 Cuban exiles were trained as an army to invade Cuba and conduct an armed overthrow of Castro on April 17, 1961.
But the small, counter-revolutionary force was no match for Castro’s supporters, who rallied to counter the invasion. It turned out to be a disaster and an embarrassment for the new Kennedy administration, and Cuba’s revolutionary spirit was nourished yet again.
The U.S. and Cuba hit another contentious point the following year, after it was discovered that Castro had secretly allowed the Soviets to build sites for nuclear missiles, leading to the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The crisis brought the world to the brink of nuclear war.
The CIA made several other attempts at Castro’s life, aside from the Bay of Pigs Invasion. But none were successful, and Castro’s revolutionary fervor remained strong throughout the years.
Castro was one of many international political figures who, following the global shifts of World War II, threw themselves into spurring movements for justice and an egalitarian society. And despite his adamantly enforced Marxist-Leninist ideals and dictatorial style of government that suppressed so many who opposed him, his popularity remained high throughout his reign.
But after the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of Soviet aid, the continued economic crisis in Cuba was hard on even those who supported Castro. It forced him to seek aid elsewhere, and forge alliances with other leaders in Latin America, namely with Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez and Bolivia’s Evo Morales.
In 2008, after almost 50 years as the head of his nation and amid deteriorating health, Castro passed the role of president onto his younger brother, Raul Castro, who remains in power today.
It was not until December 2014 that the US enforced restrictions on Cuba were finally lifted.
These 50 years have shown that isolation has not worked,” President Obama told the American people. “It’s time for a new approach.”
This momentous development included plans to open an embassy in Havana, expand economic ties with Cuba, and ease travel restrictions. The first step in easing tensions between the United States and Cuba included a prisoner swap between the two countries.
But the deal was reached between President Obama and Cuban President Raul Castro. Fidel Castro was still nowhere to be seen.
In his final years, Castro rarely appeared in public. He assumed the role of an elder statesman, completely removing himself from any official role in Cuba’s government. After President Barack Obama’s historic visit to Cuba in March 2016, Castro penned a letter publicly criticizing the U.S. president. Obama did not meet with the former Cuban leader during his three-day visit to the island nation. [Courtesy of MercoPress News Agency en.mercopress.com/current-edition] ... See MoreSee Less
DONALD TRUMP'S VICTORY: Preconceptions, misconceptions and experts that fail to see reality
Explaining the not so quite unexplainable. Donald Trump's victory by a convincing margin left all those so called analysts who had foreseen his defeat as inevitable trying to find out how they had so spectacularly misread the world. The role of mass media under fire.
It would seem that for those professionals in the fields of evaluating world events and reporting on them for readers and viewers to become informed have shown serious deficiencies understanding the feelings of regular Americans, of those who want to work hard, keep their family safe and secure for the future, of the “real people,” not just the loud voices in wealthy cities or within the multicultural mafia in the liberal heartland of LA or New York. Tuesday's elections were decided in rural outposts and forgotten spots homes across the country.
With incumbent President Barack Obama reaching out to the Castro dictatorship in Cuba and not being strong enough against its Venezuelan clone led by Nicolás Maduro, the Hispanic vote also gave special consideration to those issues that looked to go on unresolved under a new Democrat administration. For that and for other reasons, Donald Trump will be sworn in as the 45th President of the United States on January 20, 2017, after all.
Reuters had given Clinton a 95 per cent chance of winning. Nate Silver downgraded to a 71 per cent chance of success. And the Huffington Post said she was a shoe in at 98 per cent. These are people who are supposed to be reflecting reality back to society. It is time to think again when choosing a source on information, for those in mainstream media have enjoyed the sound of their own echo for so long they stopped listening to people in the street, labelling them as racists, xenophobes, misogynists or whatever it was needed to adjust information and reality in a “comprehensive” way.
The women who campaigned on chromosomes alone because it was time for a woman in the White House regardless of how unlikeable the candidate was or the horrors she committed in her past forgot other women who do not need to be seen as victims did back Trump. A vote against Barack Obama was explained as a vote against his skin, when it was actually his policies that failed him after eight years in office.
According to the “analysts”, all women, black Americans and Hispanics were with Clinton. There was no consideration given to the “odd” chance that people vote for policy that will make a difference to their lives, which is why Obama won the vote in his own time and which has also worked for the diametrically opposed candidate.
The forgotten Americans want policies that will make a difference: To reduce immigration and deport those migrants who fail to follow the law of the country; to prevent Islamic extremists from infiltrating the United States in the way Europe has allowed itself to be overrun and Germany has all but fallen; to make alliances with new political powerhouses and stop paying to be the policeman of the world and to make trade deals which return jobs and industry to Middle America.
But most of all, they wanted a chance to have their voices heard. “Such a beautiful and important evening! The forgotten man and woman will never be forgotten again. We will all come together as never before,” the president-elect summed up the issue.
When looked at in the face and not from the heights of newsdesks or broadcasting stations, it can be seen in the people's faces that they are sick of being told things they know are not true, tired of hearing that black lives matter when police lives seem to count for nothing, fed up of seeing migrants receive free healthcare when small business owners are fined for failing to pay Obamacare premiums which are off the chart. Fed up with having their Second Amendment rights brought into question or that the Supreme Court should fall to the liberal left.
The losing Establishment will need to take notice that they work for the people. Not the other way around.
Argentina's experience in last year's elections was somewhat similar. While the media announced a Daniel Scioli, people on social media knew Mauricio Macri had reached the presidency.
Upton Sinclair Perfected The Art Of The Misleading Media Narrative
Today is famed twentieth-century progressive muckraker Upton Sinclair’s birth anniversary. He continues to influence today’s liberal media.
By C.C. Taylor Extract from The Federalist 20th September, 2016
We often act as if media bias is some modern development of our supposedly hyperpartisan world, but it has been the norm throughout human history. What is most different about modern media bias is that the media tries to hide it under a veneer of objectivity. It has been more common for reporters to disclose their political affiliations, either outright through long relationships with readers or early on in their writings, or implicitly by working for a newspaper that openly espoused a particular political view.
Today is the birth anniversary of the famed Upton Sinclair, who in the early twentieth century paved the way for much of today’s breathless political reporting from a progressive vantage point. Let’s give an example.
The road to Abu Ghraib began, in some ways, in 2002 at Guantánamo Bay. It was there that the Bush administration began building up a worldwide military detention system, deliberately located on bases outside American soil and sheltered from public visibility and judicial review. The administration shunned the scrutiny of independent rights monitors like Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International. It presumed that suspected agents of terrorism did not deserve normal legal protections, and it presumed that American officials could always tell a terrorist from an innocent bystander. That was The New York Times’ editorial description, on May 7, 2004, of the terrorist detention facility at Guantanamo Bay, in Cuba. Titled “The New Iraq Crisis; The Military Archipelago,” the editorial characterized Guantanamo as the nexus of an American prison system located mostly at U.S. military bases that violated basic international norms of treating prisoners and condoned gratuitous physical and psychological brutality.
It became apparent the Times knew the reality of Guantanamo was different from its editorial description when the Obama administration took office in January 2009 and the newspaper, while continuing to call for Guantanamo to be closed, abandoned its “military archipelago” theme and largely ceased investigating what goes on there. The Bush-era opinionizing at the newspaper represented politically oriented narrative-making, something first practiced by early twentieth-century progressive writers, foremost among them Sinclair. ... See MoreSee Less
Edward Albee, considered the foremost American playwright of his generation, died yesterday at his home in Montauk, New York.
At the age of 23, when he was still struggling for recognition as a playwright, his talent was recognized by the Foreign Press Association.
In June 1961 he won the FPA’s "Best American Play" Award for his two one-act plays "The American Dream" and "The Death of Bessie Smith."
In 1963 he won the Award again, this time for "Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf." On accepting the award, Albee confessed he was not keen to see the play made into a film, however, the 1966 film adaptation of "Who's Afraid if Virginia Woolf," starring Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor, turned the play into Albee's most famous work. ... See MoreSee Less
[On BBC Radio Stoke's Mid-Morning show, presenter Stuart George mourned the death of 'common sense'. So many people asked for a copy of what he read out, we thought it only fair to re-produce it here...]
"Today we mourn the passing of a beloved old friend, Common Sense, who has been with us for many years. No one knows for sure how old he was, since his birth records were long ago lost in bureaucratic red tape.
He will be remembered as having cultivated such valuable lessons as: - Knowing when to come in out of the rain. - Why the early bird gets the worm. - Life isn't always fair, and maybe it was my fault.
Common sense lived by simple, sound financial policies, (don't spend more than you can earn), and reliable strategies, (adults are in charge not children).
His health began to deteriorate rapidly when well intentioned but overbearing regulations were set in place - Reports of an 8 year old boy charged with sexual harassment for kissing a classmate; Teens suspended from school for using mouthwash after lunch; A teacher fired for reprimanding an unruly student, only worsened his condition.
Common sense lost ground when parents attacked teachers for doing the job they themselves had failed to do in disciplining their unruly children. It declined even further when schools were required to get parental consent to administer sun lotion or an aspirin to a student, but could not inform parents when a student became pregnant and wanted to have an abortion.
Common sense lost the will to live as the churches became businesses, and criminals received better treatment than their victims,
Common sense took a beating when you couldn't defend yourself from a burglar in your own home and the burglar could sue you for assault.
Common sense finally gave up the will to live, after a women failed to realize that a steaming cup of coffee was hot. She spilled a little in her lap, and was promptly awarded a huge settlement.
Common sense was preceded in death, by his parents, Truth and Trust; his wife, Discretion; his daughter, Responsibility; his son, Reason.
He is survived by his 4 stepbrothers: Iknow Myrights Iwant Myrights Iwant Itnow Ima Victim.
Not many attended his funeral because so few realized he was gone.
If you still remember him, pass this on. If not, join the majority and do nothing."
[Note: This is a modified version of a text that's originally attributed to Lori Borgman]. ... See MoreSee Less
Founded in 1918, the FPA is the pre-eminent non-governmental organization representing international journalists in the U.S. With members from more than 50 countries, the FPA offers orientation and ne...
Great sadness at the news of The New York Times iconic photographer, Bill Cunningham passing aged 87 after suffering complications following a stroke.
The New York Times obituary, with quotes from The Times publisher and chairman Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. expressed what so many were noting on social media and in commentary: ..."His company was sought after by the fashion world’s rich and powerful, yet he remained one of the kindest, most gentle and humble people I have ever met. We have lost a legend, and I am personally heartbroken to have lost a friend"
Cunningham led the way in the art of Street photography, and more recently his Video OPEDs, alongside his weekly column in the New York Times, were again leading the way in the art of Video OPED reporting.
One could always spot Bill Cunningham - he would slip in, intent on what he wanted to capture - he didn't talk too much - he was seeing, watching, shooting ...
The legendary Times fashion photographer Bill Cunningham died on Saturday, June 25, at age 87. In this weekly video series, he spotted and distilled the latest trends from the runways of Paris to the ...
PR Newswire has announced it has been acquired by global media intelligence leader Cision who provide not only software and services for PR professionals but also tools and resources to the journalism community.
Cision owns Help a Reporter Out (HARO), that connects journalists and new media creators to sources for their articles and content. HARO has over 475,000 active sources and experts to help journalists complete their stories.